Earthquakes

Discussion in 'General & World' started by Duckweather, Jul 9, 2019.

  1. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Hi folks.
    This thread has been set up to accommodate conversations, info, ideas and observations of earthquakes worldwide, as well as those local to Australia.

    Thankyou Richard for offering a new place for myself, other old WZ'ers and all others to share our interest in this topic, and it's sometimes associated other events, such as volcanic activity and tsunamis. 3.28 million views on WZ/EQ's was/is a wonderful response to our natterings there.

    I am no scientist and just an amateur observer of quakes, their precursors, events and some of their consequences. So my input is in a conversational style and observations stem from general intuition and suspicions as to where quakes/tremors may occur. I always [noted on WZ] say that what I natter about is to be taken with a pinch of salt, as I may be wrong with my observations. But I am sure that we can learn much from each other and enjoy the sharing of thoughts, feelings, ideas and info on earth movements, daily and/or weekly.

    Thankyou for welcoming me and all the other WZ'ers to your wonderful community on ski with such kindness and warmth. It is hugely appreciated.
    Cheers, Duck.
     
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  2. Eddy

    Eddy Hard Yards

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    I look forward to your analysis/reports Duck. Ive always enjoyed reading the EQ thread on WZ.
     
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  3. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    I was going to post something about the quakes in California, but was waiting until we resolved where we might put them, with the Weather forum reorg.
    The M6.4 quake on the 4th of July at Ridgecrest was the largest in California for almost 20 years.
    There was some debate as to whether it was the main quake or a pre-quake.
    That was answered on the 6th of July, when a M7.1 hit 17km from Ridgecrest.

    Neither of these earthquakes was on the San Andreas fault line.

    The previous largest quakes were the 1994 M6.7 Northridge quake (LA County), and the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta quake near San Jose (southern end of San Francisco Bay), which were on the San Andreas Fault.
     
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  4. Backpack2

    Backpack2 Hard Yards

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    Me too. I’m glad you have found your way here Duck. I’m sure you will get an even bigger following here :thumbs:
     
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  5. LMB

    LMB Old but definitely not Crusty! Ski Pass: Gold

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    Ohhhh
    I’m gonna love this thread.
     
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  6. teckel

    teckel Pool Room Ski Pass: Gold

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    Earthquakes? Weather? I'm having a WTF moment ........
    Could someone please explain ....
     
  7. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    Why is "Surfing" in Weather?
     
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  8. teckel

    teckel Pool Room Ski Pass: Gold

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    Because surf conditions are totally dependent on weather.
     
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  9. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Thankyou kindly @Eddy ;)
     
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  10. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Thanks to you too @Backpack2 :)
     
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  11. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Hi @Sandy.
    There is a rather complex junction of faults in that region {Ridgecrest} and I think they may be discovering some are deeper than was initially thought. Initially I thought that the M6+ may have been the main one, but with still a hesitation to confirm such in the back of my mind, as the behaviour there of the tremors was erratic - meaning looking a little 'unstable' enough to be a bit of a worry.
    That's right @Sandy, the quakes were not directly related to the San Andreas, but I suspected that the determined movements in Ridgecrest and surrounds are not too far distant in relation to the other major fault lines [including the San Andreas and her sister faults}, and perhaps even the concerted movements in the Ridgecrest region may encourage [which seems to be occurring] some movement towards the east in Oklahoma, as well as niggles up the San Andreas [California west coast]. It wouldn't surprise me if Ridgecrest /surrounds came up with an M4 at some point too.
    There are many smaller faults to the north and NE of Ridgecrest which may spot with small tremors in the meantime. maybe Nevada may get a visit from a movement too.

    It wouldn't surprise me if a niggle came up in the Gulf of California at some point...? Could be wrong.

    This post has taken me 3 times longer than I wanted, as my possums decided to call in for a snack. Can't ignore those big brown eyes :)

    For now, Duck
     
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  12. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    Yeah, there's a host of complex faults right across California. Just southern California is a mess of them.
    [​IMG]
     
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  13. AArena

    AArena Steamed ham Ski Pass: Gold

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    Very nice map!
    If anyone is interested in daily earthquake space/earth plus earth surface weather relationship I strongly suggest checking out “suspicious observers” youtube space weather update. Iv been watching him for years and has taught me so much more about weather on earth in fine detail than one can imagine.
    There main focus is earthquakes and his views on climate change are quite controversial. Other than that there is tons to learn from them.
     
  14. POW_hungry

    POW_hungry Part of the Furniture Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    Welcome, the ring of fire has certainly been busy over the past 2-3 weeks. You should be busy with obs.
     
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  15. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Cheers @Pow-hungry. Funny thing is, I am not on 'watch' every day for all the EQ happenings. There are some weeks or days where I am too distracted with other stuff to keep an eye on all that is going on - unfortunately. I wish I could focus on EQ's full time ;)

    But you are right. The ROF has been and is very active. There are times when it gets up a run of activity and we can sometimes see multiples of M6+'s and above. This is when I also look out for increased volcanic activity in some areas. Sometimes the activity looks cyclical, where predictions or anticipation of quakes coming up in some 'usual' locations can be thought about - but this is not always the case to be predictable, as nature doesn't necessarily follow patterns of 'behaviour'.
    One sort of activity that does catch my eye, is when, for example, Hawaii feels many smaller focused tremors - as it did before the larger volcanic activity took off last year and heralded by an larger quake there - as a precursor to potential concerted activity [possible disaster by degrees]. These flurries of smaller quakes can indicate the potential of an event ranging from a moderately impacting event to a potentially serious issue.

    So, the ROF [Ring of Fire] is its own beast. Though it can look like one big slab of crust, it is rather complex. The are undersea mounds [including volcanoes], the trenches, faults, shelfs, plate edges, some delicate land masses [some islands, which can be vulnerable to coastline rise and fall - by degrees of course] etc..

    In the past I have observed, and commented on WZ, on locations I have suspected there may be short term future issues with quakes or quakes of a moderate to larger size. There have been a few of the 'biggies' [large quakes, Chile for example, amongst some others] I anticipated, which have occurred as and when I said they possibly would. I am respectfully aware there are other folks on the net who, via their own ways of anticipating events, follow quakes daily, even hourly. But I am stubborn really as I only go by how I feel about what I observe or anticipate regarding quakes [and other activity]. This way I stay 'true' to my own 'take' on things. I take into account many things like 'energy' and intuition [my primary focus], weather, solar etc. activity as possible influences in some cases.

    One person, who I admire for his skill and tireless observations of EQ and planetary activity is Ditrianum [Frank H.]. I rarely drop in on his YT videos and website, but he has avid followers. His 'angle' and science of what he observes eludes my understanding. Another wonderful person, for whom I had a friendship, admiration and the utmost respect for was the late Jim Berkland from the U.S [he was an ex USGS geologist/scientist].. He and I were on the'same-page'.

    Anyway, my EQ posts here will be more location focused as time goes on, especially after WZ has closed the forums on the 29th of this month.

    Cheers, Duck.
     
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  16. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    Last few earthquakes I've felt:
    - 19th June. M6.8, about 300km away.
    - 24th June. M5.5, about 50km away.
    - 8th July. M4.3, about 40km away.
     
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  17. StormyLee

    StormyLee Early Days

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    Just felt a good one in Karratha! 6.5 at 0km depth off the coast of Pardoo/Broome, any Broomies on here???

    Offshore North-West WA, Indian Ocean

    Summary
    Origin (UTC): 14/07/2019 05:39:22 Epicentral Time: 14/07/2019 13:39:22
    Longitude: 120.285 Latitude: -18.347
    Magnitude: 6.5 (Mw(Mwp)) Depth: 0 km

    earthquakes.ga.gov.au
     
  18. StormyLee

    StormyLee Early Days

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  19. Claude Cat

    Claude Cat On my bike Moderator Ski Pass: Platinum

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  20. Colin Maitland

    Colin Maitland One of Us

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    Total of 7 quakes of WA as at 1915 AEST or 1715 WA. this afternoon Ranging from 6.6M at a depth of 10KM to 3.8M at a depth of 1 KM . 6.6 M biggest ever recorded of WA.

    I have always found it interesting USGS and ESMC vary in Magnitude even after revision to that of Australia’s Geoscience.
    Latest activity attached.

     
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  21. Colin Maitland

    Colin Maitland One of Us

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    Just latest update. As I said on WZ on my only post, I am waiting for the big one. These are all precursors to a large 8M - 9M, just where is the question as they are firing all over the place and swarms are in many areas. So a little uncertainty where it will hit. Japan has me concerned at this point in time.
    Another 7.3M has just gone off.

    Yet to be revised

    Magnitude Mw 7.3
    Region HALMAHERA, INDONESIA
    Date time 2019-07-14 09:10:50.9 UTC
    Location 0.47 S ; 128.08 E
    Depth 10 km
    Distances 878 km S of Davao, Philippines / pop: 1,213,000 / local time: 17:10:50.9 2019-07-14
    420 km SE of Manado, Indonesia / pop: 452,000 / local time: 17:10:50.9 2019-07-14
    357 km N of Ambon, Indonesia / pop: 356,000 / local time: 18:10:50.9 2019-07-14
    160 km SE of Ternate, Indonesia / pop: 102,000 / local time: 18:10:50.9 2019-07-14
     
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  22. Flowin

    Flowin One of Us

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  23. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    It doesn't say exactly, but the other maps show above magnitude 2 earthquakes in Queensland for the period 1866 - June 2000.... So I assume that the map posted is for all of Australia, above magnitude 4 earthquakes for the period 1866 - June 2000
     
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  24. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    I have been watching, particularly, WA's quakes. It is very interesting how many moderately sized quakes there have been since the M6+. Combine this with the activity in Indonesia [west, central and east], and the countries and islands on the west Pacific, I see that the general top edges of the Oz Plate is unstable, which could be an indicator of another larger quake to come in one of the above-mentioned regions.
    On WZ yesterday, I mentioned one location, as one of my suspicions, which could come up with a larger quake as PNG - and that has happened.
    The M7 in/around Halmahera was also on my radar [didn't mention such] as I felt this was a prime location for a larger quake, given other activity north of Oz and surrounds.
    Due to the activity in the northern reaches of Oz [with WA NW also in mind] and other countries north, NW, NE and ENE of Oz, we may even see some more activity pop up in the southern reaches of Oz. I am thinking of either somewhat of a rebound effect or energy being driven up from below Oz.

    I get a bit of a feeling that in a location on the west of the U.S and/or maybe bordering with west Canada, another M5+ may come up. I just get a feeling that there is still some 'energy' to give there somewhere.

    The Gulf of St Lawrence, ranging somewhere form Quebec and back west, maybe even as far as Chicago, or somewhere along the border of the U.S./Canada, a tremor may come up.

    I agree that Japan may be on the 'radar' as well, but not forgetting Taiwan and/or Philippines.

    Recently, I thought that the Gulf of California may have come up with a quake, but I have been wrong so far.

    The Banda Sea may come into the 'picture' with an M5 or M5+ if some concerted energy gets snagged in that region....???

    naturally other locations on the planet will come up with quakes and tremors - but I won't rattle on. ;)

    For now, Duck.
     
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  25. Flowin

    Flowin One of Us

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    Yeah possibly from 1866 on wards, but I don’t know how good the quality of early technology was in seismic monitoring that far back.
     
  26. buckwheat

    buckwheat One of Us

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    I'm on a mine site in the pilbara, we felt that one yesterday. Went for nearly 2mins, totally amazing. Everyone thought it was a late blast in the pit. As it went on, everyone then thouhht the roller was tramming past the office. Very cool!
     
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  27. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    Along a plate boundary, if a good sized quake lets go, there are always aftershocks. If you get an M7, then you can expect 1 or 2 M6, and maybe 10+ M5 and lots of M4 around that general area. Also, when you get a large one along the plate boundary, you will get stress transferred to adjacent areas on the plate boundary.

    There's already been quakes on the US west coast less than 2 weeks ago, (I mentioned them in the 3rd post in this thread).
    A M6.4 quake on the 4th of July in southern California, followed by another on 6th of July, when a M7.1 hit. In this case, there was a pre-shock before the main one, and then followed by a lot of M5+ quakes.
    These are not so far from the Gulf of California.

    There's always a few quakes here in Japan, which I mentioned earlier, the largest recent one being M6.8
     
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  28. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    The interesting thing about WA's quakes is that they have not occurred on the plate edge, but on a shelf I believe. This was rather interesting. There are several shelf systems around the periphery of Oz which have shown a vulnerability to quakes and are ones which interest me particularly. They have the potential to cause water issues as well as the plate edges, trenches and undersea volcanoes.
    The large plate boundary quakes are regular culprits for throwing up multitudes of after movements ranging in size. With an apparent decrease in magnitude [size] - then other larger tremors can be thrown in the mix as the area affected and surrounds eventually settles.
    Ridgecrest {U.S.} quakes were/are interesting too. That was/is substantial movement/s for onland away from, for example, the San Andreas are recognized large fault-line.

    Interesting times atm..

    Cheers, Duck.
     
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  29. LMB

    LMB Old but definitely not Crusty! Ski Pass: Gold

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    San Andreas gets all the glory - but Cascadia is the one I think is going to be the next huge disaster, and not just because of the fallout it could cause but because of the lack of public understanding that it is even there. People are prepared for the San Andreas to rock and roll.
     
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  30. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    I agree here....
    Cascadia has a (pre) history of very large quakes, but more importantly, huge tsunami. (I'm talking hundreds of years ago, before white man, but there's a lot in native American stories, and debris evidence)
    There's now big cities right in the firing line. And that includes disasters from Mt Baker eruptions that could send huge mudslides down to these cities
     
  31. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    I just re-read that line I poorly wrote. o_O What I meant to say was that the quakes in Ridgecrest were/are away from the major faultline of the San Andreas. Therefore recent the quakes there were/are interesting because they are very concerted movements for a lesser considered in size set of faults.

    I agree that the San Andreas gets alot of attention and that the Cascadia needs to be considered as a potential big mover. The other large fault system in the U.S., that has the potential to be a considerable problem is the New Madrid...
    As time goes on, there will be discoveries that there are larger fault lines in various parts of the world which one or more may give up [expose] their existence - a bit like the 'wolf shedding its' sheeps' clothing'.

    Cheers, Duck.
     
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  32. piolet

    piolet Better make it three Ski Pass: Gold

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    Bali just earlier - 6
     
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  33. Claude Cat

    Claude Cat On my bike Moderator Ski Pass: Platinum

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  34. Claude Cat

    Claude Cat On my bike Moderator Ski Pass: Platinum

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  35. Slovenski

    Slovenski Addicted

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    Hi Duck
    Glad to see you here at Ski & your valuable opinions. Just looked at live quakes world incident site & California still got the shakes.
    One can tell somethings up when 100 tremors are recorded within 3 hrs or less.
     

    Attached Files:

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  36. Seafm

    Seafm Too far from the snow Ski Pass: Gold

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    One of my plumber customers at work was in Bali and experienced this quake. He said it like trying to run on a bowl of jelly when he and his missus bolted out of their hotel. At least you get plenty of warning if a cyclone is coming your way.
     
  37. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    A M5.3 22km from Athens a few hours ago.
     
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  38. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Thankyou @Slovenski much appreciated ;)

    California is still a bit of a mess with tremors - fluctuating in magnitude, but persistent in numbers, which will take a while to settle by degrees. But this may also indicate another moderate tremor/quake to come in relation or near to [sister faults] the San Andreas and east of the Sierra Nevada Mountain ranges.

    Cheers, Duck.
     
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  39. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Yes Sandy, that was a good rattler. A friend of mine was there with his partner and said that it felt like the rocking of a boat in small waves. Cheers, Duck.
     
  40. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Hi folks. Been distracted with other stuff again :)

    Anyway, as I have rattled on on WZ in the recent past, Hawaii is one region which I felt may not only continue with tremors, but may come up with a rattle greater than M4 at some point.

    The Banda Sea came up with the quake I said it might and the regions above Australia, including Indonesia, PNG, Philippines, Japan and other surrounding places in the west Pacific came up with the movements I anticipated.

    Same with the northern side of the Mediterranean [I think I may have been nattering on about this on WZ]. I felt movement/s was/are going to come up in that vast region.

    I'll have to come back later to finish this post - a new distraction has come up :) .

    But will mention thoughts about Italy, Portugal, northern coast of Africa and a few others.......

    Cheers for the moment distracted Duck.
     
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  41. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Back again, hopefully with no more distractions - well not until my possum family stares at me through the decking door for their snacks [ring-tails].

    Anyway, I mentioned previously Italy being somewhat on my radar. I have felt this for a while with suspicions that the volcano [Etna] was going to be a bit of a culprit with action and associated tremors. She is putting on a beautiful display at the moment and hopefully will settle soon.

    My mind's-eye is on the triple junction on the Indian Ocean. Quite a while ago there was an M6 [if my memory serves me correctly] and there is some energy creeping down the Indian Ocean towards this region. I may be wrong.

    There was a tremor recently on the northern coast of Africa, before the tremors came up in the northern parts of the Mediterranean. I feel there may be a rebound from the Mediterranean north, through the Mediterranean Sea and back towards the north of Africa. If this doesn't occur it may be that Egypt or Tunisia or Algiers may feel a tremor - but I could be wrong.
    I knew that a country/ies bordering the Adriatic Sea was/were going to come up with tremors. Could feel it my bones ;)

    The Atlantic Ocean has been very quiet. I dunno why, but I am feeling that there may be a tremor at sea west'ish of Portugal. An obscure thought crossed my mind that west of Liberia may come into the picture too for a movement.

    For those who are new to my posting, I often on WZ referred to the regions/countries around Fiji, Tonga, Samoa and Vanuatu [to the left] as the "ear" in the Pacific. I feel this region is still a bit unstable and an M5+ may come up soon. Maybe a deep quake.

    Western Australia, near Broome, is not letting up and is behaving [tremor wise] like other regions we have seen where there have been large quakes followed on by seemingly endless tremors of varying magnitudes. This behaviour is not very common for Australia. The southern states [including NSW and excluding Vic atm] have seemingly lessened in their tremor behaviours since WA took off with their M6+ recently. But I am anticipating that the 'usual' tremor clusters for SA may get a wriggle on again soon. NSW may also go on to feel the odd tremor in the near future. Vic is feeling a bit deprived of some ground movement at the moment, but our [Vic] turn will come, probably with a surprise M3 or other at some point soon.

    There has been /is an interesting cluster of small tremors in the Dominican Republic/Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands regions recently. This may [or may not] indicate the potential for an M4'ish in the near future....???

    Guatemala or Nicaragua region may come up with an M4+..???

    Ridgecrest {US} is still rattling along with tremors and I expect this will continue for some time yet.

    Anyway, there will be other regions to come up with tremors and quakes that I haven't rattled on about here. But I still have a suspicion that the larger quakes haven't 'finished' yet. There feels to me to be some stealthy energy lurking in some regions yet to let itself be felt.

    Remember, take all I say with a pinch of salt folks.

    Cheers for now, Duck.
     
  42. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    And there's probably no point trying to predict M4 or M5 quakes in Japan..... we get them often!!!! ;)
    e.g. Last 2 weeks: 11 x M4-4.9, 2 x M5-5.9, 1 x M6+
    In the last 75 years, there's been 7 x M8+, 17 x M7+, and around 250 M6+

    And there's big one coming in the Nankai Trough. Dangerous, M8+ and tsunami danger:
    The Nankai & Tokai areas are expected to rupture first:
    [​IMG]

    Expected tsunami heights:
    [​IMG]
     
  43. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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  44. piolet

    piolet Better make it three Ski Pass: Gold

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    Yikes
     
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  45. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    It is interesting @Sandy.
    I have watched Japan for years and some of the scientists who watch for various signs [of which I agree with them] as precursors for quakes in Japan.
    After the 3/11 disaster, I came across a report in the Japan Times News [2012], which discusses the Nankai Trenche's potential for a mega quake. Very interesting read. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2012/08/30/national/nankai-quake-projected-toll-radically-raised/

    Let's hope Japan never sees another horrendous disaster like 3/11. But if it does somewhere in the future, let's hope that the meticulous preparations of the Japanese and any pre-warnings they receive, will serve to protect the folks there [like yourself] and keep them as safe as is possible.

    The Sea of Japan is not immune to tremors, but not possibly on the scale of the eastern side of Japan's potential for larger quakes.

    Cheers for now, Duck.

    https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2012/08/30/national/nankai-quake-projected-toll-radically-raised/
     
  46. Call_me_Ishmael

    Call_me_Ishmael One of Us Ski Pass: Silver

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    Just read the Tsunami Stones
    [​IMG]
     
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  47. Sandy

    Sandy Dark Sith Lord of the Pool Room Moderator Ski Pass: Gold

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    There WILL be more disasters like 3/11. The last big quakes in that same general area were the 1896 Sanriku earthquake & tsunami, 22,000+ killed, M8.5, and there were less people in those areas then. And also the 1933 Sanriku earthquake & tsunami.... M8.4, 28m tsunami.
    And others recorded over the last 1500 years, in the M8.5+, with tsunami.

    Nankai/Tonankai/Tokai happen regularly. The last big one was 1854 (M8.4, 18m tsunami), and is overdue.
     
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  48. Kino

    Kino Early Days Ski Pass: Gold

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  49. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    Yes Oz does have a history of tsunami's @Kino.
    You may remember from a post I did on WZ about a 'tsunami' like event that swept through/around Philip Island many years ago. If I remember correctly it was about 20 years ago. We were walking on the beach at Cowes and a rush of water came sweeping around the region and washed up against the blue stone walls, nearly washing one of my sons into the water around the pier. I had to grab him and get him to the steps on the beach wall. It scared the tripe out of us and in all my time on the island, I had never seen that happen before [in my 50+ years]. You could actually see the wall/line of water [probably under a metre high] sweeping around the island towards us.

    The east coast, and most of the coastline around Oz actually, may be vulnerable to the effects of a tsunami nearby or from a distant quake/tsunami producing event. Oz is flanked in many places by shelfs, which some may be vulnerable to movements. The east coast may be vulnerable to the effects of tsunamis, of course, by large events in the Pacific. The opportunity for an event like this, in my mind, covers the eats, west and north coasts of Oz. As an outside chance, I never underestimate the opportunity of Oz maybe one day feeling the effects of a tsunami [maybe not as impacting as the east, west or north coasts potential] produced by an event between Antarctica and the Oz mainland. Time will tell as may indigenous historical stories.

    I also meant to mention that I saw an asteroid crossing over Vic to the west on December 26th 2004. Some believe that an asteroid caused the horrific tsunami on the NE Indian Ocean. Some feel it was an earthquake. I have an open mind and am not sure one way or the other.......bless all those poor folks who lost their lives in that tragic event.

    Cheers, Duck.
     
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  50. Duckweather

    Duckweather Early Days

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    I meant to also add that that 'thing' I saw on 26th December 2004 is what is classed [apparently] as a grey asteroid/meteor. The following link pictures exactly what I saw from Chelsea Beach [Vic.] at 11am [Melbourne time]. This image is on Pinterest and is the top left image on the page link. https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/679128818786635950/
    It was an incredible site and a few of us [strangers to each other] turned and looked at each other with blank faces, wondering where it was heading at the time. It's trajectory, heading WNW, may have contradicted the direction of the 2004 tsunami effect on the coasts, but I can't confirm such.
    Cheers again Duck.
     
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